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The role of time in policy making: a Bahraini model of higher education competition.

Hayes, Aneta; Findlow, Sally


Sally Findlow


This paper contributes to discussions about the nature and scope of higher education (HE) business in light of some of the emerging ways in which countries seem to be reframing the impact of globalism. In particular, it develops a discussion about spatialities and temporalities of HE policy by drawing on the Kingdom of Bahrain’s distinctive approach to free markets, transnational capitalism, trade of international services and foreign influence. The paper draws on key HE policy documents and regulatory frameworks issued by the Higher Education Council in Bahrain. In the paper, we ask about priorities that drive HE investment in Bahrain, as well as their impact on the role of international input in HE policy building. We find that policymaking in Bahrain is driven by ‘nationalisation’ as a pragmatic strategy at the time of transition to a knowledge economy. We also find that these goals are transient, thus providing suggestions for policy analysis from the perspective of time intervals in a space.


Hayes, A., & Findlow, S. (2020). The role of time in policy making: a Bahraini model of higher education competition. Critical Studies in Education, 61(2), 180-194.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Jul 18, 2017
Publication Date Mar 14, 2020
Journal Critical Studies in Education
Print ISSN 1750-8487
Publisher Routledge
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 61
Issue 2
Pages 180-194
Keywords Academic capitalism; Bahrain; globalism; higher education; policymaking; temporalities and spatialities
Publisher URL