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Addressing the Global Burden of Cardiovascular Disease in Women JACC State-of-the-Art Review

Vervoort, Dominique; Wang, Ruoting; Li, Guowei; Filbey, Lynaea; Maduka, Omosivie; Brewer, LaPrincess C.; Mamas, Mamas A.; Bahit, Maria Cecilia; Ahmed, Sofia B.; Van Spall, Harriette G.C.


Dominique Vervoort

Ruoting Wang

Guowei Li

Lynaea Filbey

Omosivie Maduka

LaPrincess C. Brewer

Maria Cecilia Bahit

Sofia B. Ahmed

Harriette G.C. Van Spall


Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are responsible for approximately 35% of all deaths in women. In 2019, the global age-standardized CVD prevalence and mortality of women were 6,403 per 100,000 and 204 per 100,000, respectively. Although the age- and population-adjusted prevalence has decreased globally, opposite trends are evident in regions of socioeconomic deprivation
Cardiovascular health and outcomes are influenced by regional socioeconomic, environmental, and community factors, in addition to health care system and individual factors. Cardiovascular care in women is commonly plagued by delayed diagnoses, undertreatment, and knowledge gaps, particularly in women-specific or women-predominant conditions. In this paper, we describe the global epidemiology of CVD and highlight multilevel determinants of cardiometabolic health. We review knowledge and health care gaps that serve as barriers to improving CVD outcomes in women. Finally, we present national, community, health care system, and research strategies to comprehensively address cardiometabolic risk and improve outcomes in women.


Vervoort, D., Wang, R., Li, G., Filbey, L., Maduka, O., Brewer, L. C., …Van Spall, H. G. (2024). Addressing the Global Burden of Cardiovascular Disease in Women JACC State-of-the-Art Review. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 83(25), 2690-2707.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Apr 1, 2024
Online Publication Date Jun 17, 2024
Publication Date Jun 25, 2024
Deposit Date Jun 25, 2024
Journal Journal of the American College of Cardiology
Print ISSN 0735-1097
Electronic ISSN 1558-3597
Publisher Elsevier
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 83
Issue 25
Pages 2690-2707
Keywords cardiovascular diseases; gender equity; health equity; women's health
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