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“Liberating the ‘oppressed’ and the ‘oppressor’: A model for a new TEF metric, internationalisation and democracy”

Hayes, Aneta; Cheng, Jie



The paper proposes a statistical model for a TEF metric that could liberate the “oppressed” (international students) and the “oppressors” (home students) from the influence of public policies which, through constructions of international students as “supplicants” and “beneficiaries” of the prestigious British education system, have created conditions for their exclusion in the classroom. It is argued in the paper that such representations have contributed to international students’ subordination through coloniality and have also limited home students’ agency to engage with their international peers on socially and politically equal terms. The paper conceptualises the design and philosophical nature of a supplementary TEF metric that could prevent such symptoms of public policies. It also shows how such a metric could work in practice by modelling the UK Engagement Survey (UKES) data from a case study university. The paper proposes ideas about how understandings and practice of internationalisation could be re-articulated through the proposed metric. As such, it also discusses new “standards” of internationalisation that could enter reputational rankings and ways in which they could be applied internationally.


Hayes, A., & Cheng, J. (2018). “Liberating the ‘oppressed’ and the ‘oppressor’: A model for a new TEF metric, internationalisation and democracy”. Educational Review, 72(3), 346-364.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Jul 22, 2018
Publication Date Aug 17, 2018
Journal Educational Review
Print ISSN 0013-1911
Publisher Routledge
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 72
Issue 3
Pages 346-364
Keywords internationalisation, TEF, democracy in education, equality, policy representations
Publisher URL