The United Nations Military Observer Group in India and Pakistan (UNMOGIP) 1948-1965, with postscript on the impact on UNMOGIP of the Indo-Pakistan war of 1971
In January 1949 the first UN Military Observers arrived in Kashmir to supervise a ceasefire between India and Pakistan, following hostilities arising from Kashmir's disputed status after Independence. In-accepting the resolutions of a UN Commission which had been despatched to the area, and by ratifying the Karachi Agreement of July 1949, India and Pakistan committed themselves to accepting the presence of Observers until the Dispute was resolved.
This thesis gives an overall view of UNMOGIP. it describes the background to the Dispute and the emergence, organisation and modus operandi of the Mission. It attempts to analyse UNMOGIP's contribution to the maintenance of peace by highlighting the Mission's efforts at stabilizing the situation. Considerable mention is made of civilians who were the major cause of incidents.
The thesis supports the view that for fifteen years UNMOGIP successfully assisted the parties in their desire for peace, but when this desire faltered a small group of Observers was unable to save the situation. Thus after five years of deteriorating relations between civilians and police along the Ceasefire Line, war again erupted for seventeen days in September 1965. The Observers had virtually to suspend operations until a further Ceasefire was called. Even then it was not until the Indian and Pakistan leaders reached a Political agreement in Tashkent in January 1966 that the Ceasefire truly held, and the withdrawal of forces was able to take place under the supervision of the Observers.
In 1972, after another war, the two parties agreed to solve their problems bi-laterally, and India maintained that UNMOGIP had no further function to perform. Unable to obtain Pakistan's or the UN's consent to the Mission's withdrawal, she withdrew her own co-operation. UNMOGIP has not since been able to operate on the Indian side although it remains in position.
|Jan 1, 1987