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In vitro and in vivo antimalarial activity and chemical profiling of sugarcane leaves.

Okokon, Jude E.; Mobley, Rebecca; Edem, Utibe A.; Bassey, Augustine I.; Fadayomi, Idowu; Drijfhout, Falko; Horrocks, Paul; Li, Wen-Wu

In vitro and in vivo antimalarial activity and chemical profiling of sugarcane leaves. Thumbnail


Authors

Jude E. Okokon

Rebecca Mobley

Utibe A. Edem

Augustine I. Bassey

Idowu Fadayomi



Abstract

Saccharum officinarum Linn. (sugarcane, Family-Poaceae) is employed in Ibibio traditional medicine for the treatment of various infections and diseases such as malaria. We This study aims to assess the antiplasmodial effect of the leaf extract and fractions on human malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum) in vitro, and rodent malaria parasite (P. berghei) in vivo, and analyse the bioactive components of the active fraction(s). The leaf extract and fractions of S. officinarum were prepared and their growth inhibitory effects tested against the chloroquine resistant P. falciparum strain (Dd2) and P. berghei infection in mice. An acute toxicity of the extract was determined. A combination of gas chromatography and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy was applied for metabolites profiling of crude extract and active fractions. The leaf extract and fractions demonstrated moderate activity against P. falciparum with the dichloromethane fraction producing the most potent activity (EC50?=?15.4 µg/mL). The leaf extract (170-510 mg/kg, p.o., LD50?=?1732 mg/kg) and fractions demonstrated significant (p?<?0.05-0.001) effect on P. berghei infection in prophylactic  tests as well as in established infection with n-butanol fractions producing the highest effect. An unusual sulphur-containing compound, dilaurylthiodipropionate, fatty acids, phenolic acids, flavonoid and flavonoid glycoside were identified in the active fractions. These results give credence to the use of sugarcane leaves as malarial remedy locally by confirming the in vitro and in vivo antiplasmodial potential of leaf extract/fractions of S. officinarum.

Acceptance Date Jun 6, 2022
Publication Date Jun 17, 2022
Journal Scientific Reports
Print ISSN 2045-2322
Publisher Nature Publishing Group
Pages 10250 - ?
DOI https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-022-14391-8
Keywords analytical chemistry; antimicrobials; drug development; drug discovery; microbiology; parasitology; preclinical research
Publisher URL https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-022-14391-8#article-info

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