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Gender-specific risk factors for gout: a systematic review of cohort studies

Evans, Peter L.; Prior, James A.; Belcher, John; Hay, Charles A.; Mallen, Christian D.; Roddy, Edward

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Peter L. Evans


Though gout is more prevalent in men than women, it remains unclear whether gender influences risk factors for incident gout. We aimed to systematically review all cohort studies examining risk factors for the development of gout by gender.

MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and the Cochrane Library were searched from inception to March 2019. Risk factors for gout examined were: age, ethnicity, consumption of alcohol, meat, seafood, dairy products, purine-rich vegetables, coffee and fructose, vitamin C intake, the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet, metabolic syndrome, BMI, waist and chest circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, weight change, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidaemias, renal disease, psoriasis, hypertension, diuretic use and anti-diabetic medication. Cohort studies were included if examining (at least) one of these risk factors for gout in either gender in the general population or primary care. Sample characteristics from included articles and their reported risk estimates were described using narrative synthesis.

Thirty-three articles were included, 20 (60.6%)directly compared risk factors by gender, 10 (30.3%) used men-only samples, 3 (9.1%) used women-only samples. Articles comparing risk across genders found similar increases in most risk factors. However, in men, metabolic syndrome (Hazard Ratio (95% CI) 1.37(1.20-1.58)) presented a risk of incident gout compared to none in women (>?50?years 1.15(0.85-1.54); =50?years 1.29(0.76-2.17)). Compared to men, women showed greater associated risk with higher consumption of fish and shellfish (HR (95% CI) Men: 1.02 (0.86-1.22); Women 1.36 (1.12-1.65)).

Risk factors for developing gout did not typically differ between genders and therefore similar preventative advice can be provided. Exceptions were metabolic syndrome in men and excessive seafood consumption in women, but these singular articles need further examination and in general more research into the risk factors for gout which includes women is required.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Jun 7, 2019
Online Publication Date Jun 24, 2019
Publication Date 2019-12
Publicly Available Date May 26, 2023
Journal Advances in Rheumatology
Electronic ISSN 2523-3106
Publisher BioMed Central
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 59
Article Number 24
Keywords Gender, Gout, Risk factors, Systematic review
Publisher URL


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