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Convective core entrainment in 1D main-sequence stellar models

Scott, L J A; Hirschi, R; Georgy, C; Arnett, W D; Meakin, C; Kaiser, E A; Ekström, S; Yusof, N

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L J A Scott

C Georgy

W D Arnett

C Meakin

E A Kaiser

S Ekström

N Yusof


3D hydrodynamics models of deep stellar convection exhibit turbulent entrainment at the convective-radiative boundary which follows the entrainment law, varying with boundary penetrability. We implement the entrainment law in the 1D Geneva stellar evolution code. We then calculate models between 1.5 and 60?M? at solar metallicity (Z = 0.014) and compare them to previous generations of models and observations on the main sequence. The boundary penetrability, quantified by the bulk Richardson number, RiB, varies with mass and to a smaller extent with time. The variation of RiB with mass is due to the mass dependence of typical convective velocities in the core and hence the luminosity of the star. The chemical gradient above the convective core dominates the variation of RiB with time. An entrainment law method can therefore explain the apparent mass dependence of convective boundary mixing through RiB. New models including entrainment can better reproduce the mass dependence of the main-sequence width using entrainment law parameters A ~ 2 × 10-4 and n = 1. We compare these empirically constrained values to the results of 3D hydrodynamics simulations and discuss implications.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Mar 10, 2021
Online Publication Date Mar 13, 2021
Publication Date 2021-05
Publicly Available Date May 30, 2023
Journal Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Print ISSN 0035-8711
Publisher Oxford University Press
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 503
Issue 3
Pages 4208 - 4220
Keywords convection; turbulence; stars: evolution; stars: Hertzsprung-Russell and colour-magnitude diagrams; stars: interiors
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