Gender differences in mortality of hospitalised stroke patients. Systematic review and meta-analysis.
OBJECTIVE: Gender differences in mortality after stroke remains unclear in the current literature. We therefore aimed to systematically review the gender differences in mortality up to five years after ischaemic (IS) or haemorrhagic stroke (HS) to address this evidence gap. METHODS: The literature was systematically searched using Ovid EMBASE, Ovid Medline, and Web of Science databases, from inception-November 2021. The quality of evidence was appraised using the CASP Cohort-study checklist. Unadjusted and adjusted odds and hazard ratios were meta-analysed, separately for IS and HS and a subgroup analysis of age-stratified mortality data was conducted. RESULTS: Forty-one studies were included (n = 8,128,700; mean-age 68.5 yrs; 47.1% female). 37 studies were included in meta-analysis (n = 8, 8008, 110). Compared to men, women who had an IS had lower mortality risk in-hospital (0.94; 95%CI 0.91-0.97), at one-month (0.87; 95%CI 0.77-0.98), 12-months (0.94; 95%CI 0.91-0.98) and five-years (0.93 95%CI 0.90-0.96). The subgroup analysis showed that this gender difference in mortality was present in women = 70 years up to one-month post-IS (in-hospital: 0.94; 95%CI 0.91-0.97; one-month: 0.87; 95% CI 0.77-0.98), however, in women < 70 years this difference was no longer present. Nevertheless, analysis of crude data showed women were at higher risk of mortality in-hospital, at 12-months and five-years (in-hospital: 1.05; 95%CI 1.03-1.07, 12-months: 1.10; 95%CI 1.06-1.14, five-years: 1.06; 95%CI 1.02-1.10). After HS, women had higher mortality risk in-hospital (1.03; 95%CI 1.01-1.04) however, no gender differences were found post-discharge. CONCLUSION: The gender differences in post-stroke mortality differ by stroke type, age group and follow-up. Crude stroke mortality in women is higher than in men and this appears to be driven by pre-existing comorbidities. In adjusted models, women have a lower mortality risk following IS, independent of duration of follow-up. After HS, women had higher mortality in hospital however, no gender differences after hospital discharge were found.
|Acceptance Date||Jul 3, 2022|
|Publication Date||Sep 1, 2022|
|Journal||Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery|
Publisher Licence URL