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The stigma associated with cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (MCL): A protocol for a systematic review

Nuwangi, Hasara; Agampodi, Thilini Chanchala; Price, Helen Philippa; Shepherd, Thomas; Weerakoon, Kosala Gayan; Agampodi, Suneth Buddhika


Hasara Nuwangi

Thilini Chanchala Agampodi

Kosala Gayan Weerakoon

Suneth Buddhika Agampodi



Leishmaniasis is a neglected tropical disease with three main clinical types; cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (MCL), and visceral leishmaniasis (VL). CL and MCL are considered to be highly stigmatizing due to potentially disfiguring skin pathology. CL and MCL-associated stigma are reported across the world in different contexts assimilating different definitions and interpretations. Stigma affects people with CL, particularly in terms of quality of life, accessibility to treatment, and psycho-social well-being. However, evidence on CL- and MCL-associated stigma is dispersed and yet to be synthesized. This systematic review describes the types, measurements, and implications of the stigma associated with CL and MCL and identifies any preventive strategies/interventions adopted to address the condition. This study was developed according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis Protocols (PRISMA-P) statement which is registered in the International Platform of Registered Systematic Review and Meta-analysis Protocols PROSPERO (ID- CRD42021274925). We will perform an electronic search in MEDLINE, Embase, Scopus, PubMed, EBSCO, Web of Science, Global Index Medicus, Trip, and Cochrane Library databases, and in Google Scholar, using a customized search string. Any article that discusses any type of CL- and/or MCL-associated stigma in English, Spanish and Portuguese will be included. Articles targeting veterinary studies, sandfly vector studies, laboratory-based research and trials, articles focusing only on visceral leishmaniasis, and articles on diagnostic or treatment methods for CL and MCL will be excluded. Screening for titles and abstracts and full articles and data extraction will be conducted by two investigators. The risk of bias will be assessed through specific tools for different study types. A narrative synthesis of evidence will then follow. This review will identify the knowledge gap in CL-associated stigma and will help plan future interventions.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date May 15, 2023
Publication Date May 11, 2023
Deposit Date Aug 14, 2023
Journal PLOS ONE
Print ISSN 1932-6203
Publisher Public Library of Science
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 18
Issue 5
Article Number ARTN e0285663
Additional Information © 2023 Nuwangi et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.