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Effectiveness of self-management interventions for long-term conditions in people experiencing socio-economic deprivation in high-income countries: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Okpako, Tosan; Woodward, Abi; Walters, Kate; Davies, Nathan; Stevenson, Fiona; Nimmons, Danielle; Chew-Graham, Carolyn A; Protheroe, Joanne; Armstrong, Megan


Tosan Okpako

Abi Woodward

Kate Walters

Nathan Davies

Fiona Stevenson

Danielle Nimmons

Megan Armstrong


Background Long-term conditions (LTCs) are prevalent in socio-economically deprived populations. Self-management interventions can improve health outcomes, but socio-economically deprived groups have lower participation in them, with potentially lower effectiveness. This review explored whether self-management interventions delivered to people experiencing socio-economic deprivation improve outcomes. Methods We searched databases up to November 2022 for randomized trials. We screened, extracted data and assessed the quality of these studies using Cochrane Risk of Bias 2 (RoB2). We narratively synthesized all studies and performed a meta-analysis on eligible articles. We assessed the certainty of evidence using GRADE for articles included in the meta-analysis. Results The 51 studies included in this review had mixed findings. For the diabetes meta-analysis, there was a statistically significant pooled reduction in haemoglobin A1c (−0.29%). We had moderate certainty in the evidence. Thirty-eight of the study interventions had specific tailoring for socio-economically deprived populations, including adaptions for low literacy and financial incentives. Each intervention had an average of four self-management components. Conclusions Self-management interventions for socio-economically deprived populations show promise, though more evidence is needed. Our review suggests that the number of self-management components may not be important. With the increasing emphasis on self-management, to avoid exacerbating health inequalities, interventions should include tailoring for socio-economically deprived individuals.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Jul 16, 2023
Online Publication Date Aug 8, 2023
Deposit Date Aug 21, 2023
Journal Journal of Public Health
Print ISSN 1741-3842
Electronic ISSN 1741-3850
Publisher Oxford University Press
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Article Number fdad145
Keywords Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health, General Medicine