Skip to main content

Research Repository

Advanced Search

Secondary transfer effect and intergroup solidarity: alternative processes of generalisation

Unver, Halime


Halime Unver


Huseyin Cakal


Through a series of six studies (Studies 1, 5, and 6 involves two groups), this thesis focuses on a relatively understudied dimension of intergroup contact, i.e. secondary transfer effect (STE; Pettigrew, 2009). More specifically, the thesis investigates (1) whether and how contact with a primary proximal group is associated with support for social change benefitting the secondary distal group by creating political solidarity in conflictual contexts, (2) how different dimensions of contact shape such a generalisation process, and (3) what alternative mechanisms underlie this generalisation process.
In Chapter 4 (Study 1), I showed that positive contact between Turks and Kurds was indirectly associated with their greater support for Syrian refugees’ rights via positive attitude generalisation and vice versa for negative contact. Moreover, the perceived threat from Syrian refugees weakened the attitude generalisation process in the context of Turkey.
In Chapter 5 (Studies 2 and 3), in Cyprus, I showed that Turkish immigrants’ quantity and quality of contact with Turkish Cypriots were indirectly associated with increased willingness to live with the Greek Cypriots and greater support for a peaceful solution to the Cyprus problem via positive attitude generalisation. In addition, perceived ingroup reputation strengthened these indirect associations.
In Chapter 6 (Studies 4-6), I tested positive and negative emotion generalisation processes as alternative underlying mechanisms of the STE in three contexts: Chile, Romania, Turkey. I found that positive and negative contact between proximal primary outgroups were indirectly associated with support for distal secondary outgroup rights via positive and negative emotions generalisation. However, such transferable effects of positive vs negative contact are mostly explained by the corresponding emotion generalisation process.
All in all, across six studies, this thesis corroborated previously identified processes and uncovered additional key processes that can implement the STE mechanism as a tool for prejudice reduction and political solidarity with distal (mostly) severely disadvantaged outgroups in conflictual settings.


Unver, H. (2022). Secondary transfer effect and intergroup solidarity: alternative processes of generalisation. (Thesis). Keele University

Thesis Type Thesis
Additional Information Embargo on access until 30 August 2024 - The thesis is due for publication, or the author is actively seeking to publish this material.
Award Date 2022-10

Downloadable Citations