Skip to main content

Research Repository

Advanced Search

Antimicrobial Resistance Patterns and Risk Factors Associated with Salmonella spp. Isolates from Poultry Farms in the East Coast of Peninsular Malaysia: A Cross-Sectional Study

Antimicrobial Resistance Patterns and Risk Factors Associated with Salmonella spp. Isolates from Poultry Farms in the East Coast of Peninsular Malaysia: A Cross-Sectional Study Thumbnail


Abstract

The burden of antimicrobial use in agricultural settings is one of the greatest challenges facing global health and food security in the modern era. Malaysian poultry operations are a relevant but understudied component of epidemiology of antimicrobial resistance. We aimed to identify the prevalence, resistance patterns, and risk factors associated with Salmonella isolates from poultry farms in three states of East Coast Peninsular Malaysia. Between 8 February 2019 and 23 February 2020, a total of 371 samples (cloacal swabs = 259; faecal = 84; Sewage = 14, Tap water = 14) was collected from poultry operations. Characteristics of the sampled farms and associated risk factors were obtained using semi-structured questionnaires. Presumptive Salmonella spp. isolates were identified based on colony morphology with subsequent biochemical and PCR confirmation. Susceptibility of isolates was tested against a panel of 12 antimicrobials using disk diffusion method. Our findings revealed that the proportion of Salmonella spp.-positive isolates across sample source were as following: cloacal swab (46.3%, 120/259); faecal (59.5%, 50/84); in tap water (14.3%, 2/14); and in sewage sample (35.7%, 5/14). Isolates from faecal (15.5%, 13/84), cloacal (1.2%, 3/259), and sewage (7.1%, 1/14) samples were significantly resistant to at least five classes of antimicrobials. Resistance to Sulfonamides class (52%, 92/177) was predominantly observed followed by tetracycline (39.5%, 70/177) and aminoglycosides (35.6%, 63/177). Multivariate regression analysis identified intensive management system (OR = 1.55, 95% CI = 1.00-2.40) as a leading driver of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) acquisition. A prevalence of resistance to common antimicrobials was recorded for sulfamethoxazole (33.9%), tetracycline (39.5%), and trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole (37.9%). A close association between different risk factors and the prevalence of AMR of Salmonella strains suggests a concern over rising misuse of veterinary antimicrobials that may contribute to the emergence and evolution of multidrug-resistant pathogen isolates. One Health approach is recommended to achieve a positive health outcome for all species.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Sep 6, 2021
Publication Date Sep 9, 2021
Publicly Available Date May 30, 2023
Journal Pathogens
Print ISSN 2076-0817
Publisher MDPI
DOI https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10091160
Keywords Salmonella spp.; antimicrobial resistant; distribution; poultry farms; environment; Malaysia
Publisher URL https://www.mdpi.com/2076-0817/10/9/1160

Files







You might also like



Downloadable Citations