Skip to main content

Research Repository

Advanced Search

Menopausal Hormone Therapy- A Comprehensive Review


Purpose of Review
For decades the medical community recommended menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) for prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) and osteoporosis in addition to relieving unpleasant vasomotor and genitourinary symptoms. These recommendations were largely based on observational studies. Several large randomized placebo-controlled trials led to the surprising finding that postmenopausal women were at higher risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) events compared with women in the placebo group. For the next decade, women were less frequently prescribed MHT and more often declined MHT.

Recent Findings
Today, there are more evidence-based guidelines utilizing sex-specific ASCVD risk factors to assess risk in women. More recent studies have shed new light on safety and potential benefits for women initiating MHT earlier with newer options for route of administration, dosing, and combinations.

Recent studies suggest MHT safety in younger women, women within 10 years of menopause, and women who use low-dose MHT for short durations for menopause symptom relief. Transdermal, newer low-dose oral therapies and SERM therapies may also have lower risk and be reasonable considerations for women. Healthcare providers need to be aware of the current options for MHT, current indications, contraindications, long-term ASCVD risks, and nonhormonal options for high-risk women.


Wu. (2020). Menopausal Hormone Therapy- A Comprehensive Review. Current Atherosclerosis Reports, 22, Article 33.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date May 15, 2020
Online Publication Date Jun 18, 2020
Publication Date Jun 18, 2020
Journal Current Atherosclerosis Reports
Print ISSN 1523-3804
Publisher Springer Verlag
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 22
Article Number 33
Keywords Menopause; Hormones; Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease; Cardiovascular risk; Safety
Publisher URL