Constanza L. Andaur Navarro
Systematic review finds "spin"practices and poor reporting standards in studies on machine learning-based prediction models
Navarro, Constanza L. Andaur; Damen, Johanna A. A.; Takada, Toshihiko; Nijman, Steven W. J.; Dhiman, Paula; Ma, Jie; Collins, Gary S; Bajpai, Ram; Riley, Richard D.; Moons, Karel G. M.; Hooft, Lotty
Johanna A. A. Damen
Steven W. J. Nijman
Gary S Collins
Dr Ram Bajpai firstname.lastname@example.org
Richard D. Riley
Karel G. M. Moons
OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the presence and frequency of spin practices and poor reporting standards in studies that developed and/or validated clinical prediction models using supervised machine learning techniques.
STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: We systematically searched PubMed from 01-2018 to 12-2019 to identify diagnostic and prognostic prediction model studies using supervised machine learning. No restrictions were placed on data source, outcome, or clinical specialty.
RESULTS: We included 152 studies: 38% reported diagnostic models and 62% prognostic models. When reported, discrimination was described without precision estimates in 53/71 abstracts (74.6%, [95% CI 63.4 - 83.3]) and 53/81 main texts (65.4%, [95% CI 54.6 - 74.9]). Of the 21 abstracts that recommended the model to be used in daily practice, 20 (95.2% [95% CI 77.3 - 99.8]) lacked any external validation of the developed models. Likewise, 74/133 (55.6% [95% CI 47.2 - 63.8]) studies made recommendations for clinical use in their main text without any external validation. Reporting guidelines were cited in 13/152 (8.6% [95% CI 5.1 - 14.1]) studies.
CONCLUSION: Spin practices and poor reporting standards are also present in studies on prediction models using machine learning techniques. A tailored framework for the identification of spin will enhance the sound reporting of prediction model studies.
|Journal Article Type||Article|
|Acceptance Date||Mar 28, 2023|
|Online Publication Date||Apr 5, 2023|
|Journal||JOURNAL OF CLINICAL EPIDEMIOLOGY|
|Peer Reviewed||Peer Reviewed|
|Keywords||Diagnosis; Prognosis; Development; Validation; Misinterpretation; Overinterpretation; Overextrapolation; Spin|
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