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ISPD recommendations for the evaluation of peritoneal membrane dysfunction in adults: Classification, measurement, interpretation and rationale for intervention.

Davies; Lambie

ISPD recommendations for the evaluation of peritoneal membrane dysfunction in adults: Classification, measurement, interpretation and rationale for intervention. Thumbnail


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Abstract

GUIDELINE 1: A pathophysiological taxonomy: A pathophysiological classification of membrane dysfunction, which provides mechanistic links to functional characteristics, should be used when prescribing individualized dialysis or when planning modality transfer (e.g. to automated peritoneal dialysis (PD) or haemodialysis) in the context of shared and informed decision-making with the person on PD, taking individual circumstances and treatment goals into account. (practice point). GUIDELINE 2A: Identification of fast peritoneal solute transfer rate (PSTR): It is recommended that the PSTR is determined from a 4-h peritoneal equilibration test (PET), using either 2.5%/2.27% or 4.25%/3.86% dextrose/glucose concentration and creatinine as the index solute. (practice point) This should be done early in the course dialysis treatment (between 6 weeks and 12 weeks) (GRADE 1A) and subsequently when clinically indicated. (practice point). GUIDELINE 2B: Clinical implications and mitigation of fast solute transfer: A faster PSTR is associated with lower survival on PD. (GRADE 1A) This risk is in part due to the lower ultrafiltration (UF) and increased net fluid reabsorption that occurs when the PSTR is above the average value. The resulting lower net UF can be avoided by shortening glucose-based exchanges, using a polyglucose solution (icodextrin), and/or prescribing higher glucose concentrations. (GRADE 1A) Compared to glucose, use of icodextrin can translate into improved fluid status and fewer episodes of fluid overload. (GRADE 1A) Use of automated PD and icodextrin may mitigate the mortality risk associated with fast PSTR. (practice point). GUIDELINE 3: Recognizing low UF capacity: This is easy to measure and a valuable screening test. Insufficient UF should be suspected when either (a) the net UF from a 4-h PET is <400 ml (3.86% glucose/4.25% dextrose) or <100 ml (2.27% glucose /2.5% dextrose), (GRADE 1B) and/or (b) the daily UF is insufficient to maintain adequate fluid status. (practice point) Besides membrane dysfunction, low UF capacity can also result from mechanical problems, leaks or increased fluid absorption across the peritoneal membrane not explained by fast PSTR. GUIDELINE 4A: Diagnosing intrinsic membrane dysfunction (manifesting as low osmotic conductance to glucose) as a cause of UF insufficiency: When insufficient UF is suspected, the 4-h PET should be supplemented by measurement of the sodium dip at 1 h using a 3.86% glucose/4.25% dextrose exchange for diagnostic purposes. A sodium dip =5 mmol/L and/or a sodium sieving ratio =0.03 at 1 h indicates UF insufficiency. (GRADE 2B). GUIDELINE 4B: Clinical implications of intrinsic membrane dysfunction (de novo or acquired): in the absence of residual kidney function, this is likely to necessitate the use of hypertonic glucose exchanges and possible transfer to haemodialysis. Acquired membrane injury, especially in the context of prolonged time on treatment, should prompt discussions about the risk of encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis. (practice point). GUIDELINE 5: Additional membrane function tests: measures of peritoneal protein loss, intraperitoneal pressure and more complex tests that estimate osmotic conductance and 'lymphatic' reabsorption are not recommended for routine clinical practice but remain valuable research methods. (practice point). GUIDELINE 6: Socioeconomic considerations: When resource constraints prevent the use of routine tests, consideration of membrane function should still be part of the clinical management and may be inferred from the daily UF in response to the prescription. (practice point).

Acceptance Date Feb 10, 2021
Publication Date Feb 10, 2021
Journal Peritoneal Dialysis International: Journal of the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis
Print ISSN 0896-8608
Publisher SAGE Publications
Pages 352-372
DOI https://doi.org/10.1177/0896860820982218
Keywords Fibrosis, guideline, inflammation, peritoneal membrane, peritoneal equilibration test, sodium dip, ultrafiltration
Publisher URL https://doi.org/10.1177%2F0896860820982218

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