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Development and face validation of strategies for improving consultation skills.

Lefroy, Janet; Thomas, Adam; Harrison, Chris; Williams, Stephen; O'Mahony, Fidelma; Gay, Simon; Kinston, Ruth; McKinley, R K


Adam Thomas

Chris Harrison

Stephen Williams

Fidelma O'Mahony

Simon Gay

Ruth Kinston

R K McKinley


While formative workplace based assessment can improve learners' skills, it often does not because the procedures used do not facilitate feedback which is sufficiently specific to scaffold improvement. Provision of pre-formulated strategies to address predicted learning needs has potential to improve the quality and automate the provision of written feedback. To systematically develop, validate and maximise the utility of a comprehensive list of strategies for improvement of consultation skills through a process involving both medical students and their clinical primary and secondary care tutors. Modified Delphi study with tutors, modified nominal group study with students with moderation of outputs by consensus round table discussion by the authors. 35 hospital and 21 GP tutors participated in the Delphi study and contributed 153 new or modified strategies. After review of these and the 205 original strategies, 265 strategies entered the nominal group study to which 46 year four and five students contributed, resulting in the final list of 249 validated strategies. We have developed a valid and comprehensive set of strategies which are considered useful by medical students. This list can be immediately applied by any school which uses the Calgary Cambridge Framework to inform the content of formative feedback on consultation skills. We consider that the list could also be mapped to alternative skills frameworks and so be utilised by schools which do not use the Calgary Cambridge Framework.


Lefroy, J., Thomas, A., Harrison, C., Williams, S., O'Mahony, F., Gay, S., …McKinley, R. K. (2014). Development and face validation of strategies for improving consultation skills. Advances in Health Sciences Education, 19, 661 - 685.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Jan 8, 2014
Online Publication Date Jan 22, 2014
Publication Date 2014-12
Publicly Available Date Dec 19, 2023
Journal Advances in Health Sciences Education
Print ISSN 1382-4996
Publisher Springer
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 19
Pages 661 - 685
Publisher URL


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