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Intermittent hypoxia treatment alleviates memory impairment in the 6-month-old APPswe/PS1dE9 mice and reduces amyloid beta accumulation and inflammation in the brain.

Chen

Intermittent hypoxia treatment alleviates memory impairment in the 6-month-old APPswe/PS1dE9 mice and reduces amyloid beta accumulation and inflammation in the brain. Thumbnail


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Abstract

BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive, degenerative, and terminal disease without cure. There is an urgent need for a new strategy to treat AD. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of intermittent hypoxic treatment (IHT) on cognitive functions in a mouse model of AD and unravel the mechanism of action of IHT. METHODS: Six-month-old APPswe/PS1dE9 (APP/PS1) male mice were exposed to hypoxic environment (14.3% O2) 4 h/day for 14 days or 28 days. Cognitive functions were measured by Morris water maze test after either 14 days or 42 days of interval. Thereafter the distribution of amyloid plaque and microglial activation were determined by mouse brain immunohistochemistry, while the amyloid beta (Aß) and inflammatory cytokines were measured by ELISA and Western Blot. Microarray was used for studying gene expressions in the hippocampus. RESULTS: IHT for 14 days or 28 days significantly improved the spatial memory ability of the 6-month-old APP/PS1 mice. The memory improvement by 14 days IHT lasted to 14 days, but not to 42 days. The level of Aß plaques and neurofilament accumulations was reduced markedly after the IHT exposure. IHT reduced the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1ß, IL-6 levels, and ß-secretase cleavage of APP processing which implies reduced Aß production. Microarray analysis revealed a large number of genes in the hippocampus were significantly altered which are known to be metabolism-regulated genes. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides evidence of the beneficial effect of IHT on the progression of AD by alleviating memory impairment, reducing Aß accumulation and inflammation in the brain. IHT can be developed as a novel measure to relieve the progression of AD by targeting multiple pathways in the AD pathogenesis.

Acceptance Date Nov 9, 2021
Publication Date Nov 29, 2021
Journal Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
Print ISSN 1758-9193
Publisher BioMed Central
Pages 194 - ?
DOI https://doi.org/10.1186/s13195-021-00935-z
Publisher URL https://alzres.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13195-021-00935-z

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