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Pharmacy graduates' perceived impact of long-term undergraduate use of an ethical decision-support tool on their early practice.

White, Simon; Allinson, Maria; Black, Patricia


Maria Allinson

Patricia Black


INTRODUCTION: Values-based practice is an important concept within healthcare decision-making that sits alongside evidence-based practice. Values Exchange (Vx) ( is an online tool that supports the development of ethical and professional decision-making skills through values transparency. The aim of this research was to explore the perceived impact of long-term use of the tool during undergraduate study on pharmacy graduates' early practice. METHODS: Alumni in their pre-registration year or up to two years qualified were invited to participate via a question at the end of a survey, with additional students invited prospectively during an undergraduate lecture. All had completed three cases per year on Vx during the four-year master of pharmacy course. Semi-structured interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim, and framework analysis was applied. Ethical approval was obtained. RESULTS: A total of 18 interviews (nine pharmacists and nine pre-registration tutees) were conducted between May 2015 and March 2016. Thirteen participants were female, 13 were based in community pharmacy, and 10 were Caucasian. Interviews ranged from 50 min to 2 hours. Three themes emerged from the data: (1) the Vx learning environment, (2) learning and reflection, and (3) potential enhancements for learning. Participants perceived Vx to be an effective teaching tool supporting the development of skills necessary to exercise professional judgement in pharmacy practice. CONCLUSIONS: Vx appears to be a worthy addition to the armoury of teaching methods necessary to support future pharmacists in their preparedness to deal with ethical and professional dilemmas in practice.

Journal Article Type Article
Acceptance Date Mar 15, 2021
Online Publication Date Apr 5, 2021
Publication Date Jul 1, 2021
Publicly Available Date May 30, 2023
Journal Currents in Pharmacy Teaching and Learning
Print ISSN 1877-1297
Publisher Elsevier
Peer Reviewed Peer Reviewed
Volume 13
Issue 7
Pages 760 - 769
Keywords Pharmacy; Decision-support; Tool; Ethical; Education
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